CREWS'PREPARATION FOR THE ISS
NASA and Private Space Companies elaborated a Crew Transportation System (CTS) to orbital destinations based on a Design Reference Missions (DRMs) framework.
For the CTS to provide successful services to the ISS, 2 major objectives must be met. The first one is to insure a crew rotation capability for 4NASA or NASA-sponsored crew-members. LEARN MORE
Blue Origin, LLC
SPACE HABITAT: WHERE, HOW AND WHAT KIND?
The Cislunar space, is the place to support Asteroid Mission Concepts, for the assembly of Mars Transit Vehicles, for Orbital Habitats, as well as support service for international and/or commercial interests. Learn More
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION (ISS) - HABITAT CONCEPT
The United States Orbital Segment consists of pressurized habitable modules that are approximately 4.5 m in diameter with varying lengths between 5 and 11 meters. The sizes of these modules were dictated by the cargo bay size and lift capability of the Space Shuttle. Learn More
SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM - HABITAT CONCEPT
The Skylab was a large single module habitat that provided about 555 m3 of habitable volume for about 49 metric tons (mt). This is similar to many modules on the ISS where ten times the mass at 450 mt resulted in less habitable volume at 355 m3. Learn More
SAFE HAVEN CONFIGURATIONS FOR DEEP SPACE TRANSIT HABITATS
Smoke, fire on board, as well as pressure loss or a collision with another spacecraft during docking or undocking operations could provide For Mars missions, ground operations will be limited, quick return impossible.
Above it is showing a new concept utilizing the pressure vessel volumes planned for the Exploration Upper Stage (EUS), which yielded a convenient large volume habitat with a closed loop system paired with a smaller volume using a 30-day open loop system. Learn More
THE LUNAR ORBITAL PLATFORM, "GATEWAY", OR LOP-G
As reflected in the NASA's Exploration Campaign, the next step in the human spaceflight is the establishment of U.S. pre-eminence in the cislunar space through the operations and the deployment of a U.S.-led Lunar Orbital Platform, “Gateway,” (LOP-G).
The Gateway will be constructed in orbit, incrementally, with the uses of the American-built Orion spacecraft and the Space Launch System (SLS), as well as commercial launch vehicles.
In fact, NASA plans to build the Gateway with just five or six rocket launches, compared to the 34 launches it took to build the space station. Large parts will be set up by automatic assembly, mean robotically. LEARN MORE
CHANG'E-4'S MISSION TO THE MOON WILL BE HISTORICAL!
For the first time a country will land a spacecraft on the far side of the Moon! Chang'e-4 will be the fourth mission in its series named after the Chinese moon goddess.
In October of 1959, the Luna 3 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Luna 3 was the third spacecraft to reach the Moon and the first to send back pictures of the Moon's far side. The pictures were noisy and indistinct, but because the Moon always presents the same face to the Earth, they offered views of a part of the Moon never seen before.
The far side of the Moon is surprisingly different. The most striking difference evident in the Luna 3 pictures is the absence of the large, dark seas of cooled lava, called maria, that cover a substantial fraction of the Earth-facing near side. The far side is instead densely peppered with impact craters of every size and age. Published: September 26, 2017. Credit: NASA
The two-part missions of Chang'e-4 will focusing on the low-frequency astronomy and the investigation of the subsurface, the topography and the mineralogical composition of the lunar far side. Learn More
ISPACE - EXPAND OUR PLANET. EXPAND OUR FUTURE.
ISPACE has already started the development of its small, agile and modular lunar lander. The main goal is to provide a regular transportation service to the Moon.
Japan-based lunar exploration company ispace, inc. raises $90.2 million to be used for development of lunar lander and two lunar missions by 2020. Learn More
ROSCOMOS GIVES OK TO LUNA-25
The Russian Luna-Glob mission, currently scheduled for launch in the mid-2020s, will study the physical conditions and composition of the regolith near the lunar south pole, as well as test new soft-landing technologies. Learn More
CHANG'E-5 WILL RETURN MOON'S SAMPLES
Since the Apollo's missions, China will be the first to return to Earth, samples from the near side of the Moon. That will be the mission of Chang'e-5, scheduled for November 2019, near Mons Rümker in Oceanus Procellarum, a large area of lunar mare in the northwest region of the Moon. Learn More
Scientists work on China's Chang'e-5 landing and ascent vehicles. Credit: Framegrab/CCTV
POSSIBLE LANDING SITES FOR FUTURE MOON MISSIONS
LANDING INTO THE TYCHO CRATER
Tycho has a diameter of 85 km and a depth of about 4.5 km. Located at 11.1° West and 43.4° South, Tycho is the youngest large crater on the nearside of the Moon with a conspicuous ray system. Learn More
Pit crater/lava tubes-33.22°E, 8.336°N - Mare Tranquillitatis
Lunar pit craters are small, steep-walled collapse features that suggest subsurface voids. Over 200 pit craters are located in impact melt and are relatively shallow, at about 10 m. Learn More
The Aristarchus plateau - 50°W, 25°N
Aristarchus crater is located on the edge of its Plateau, one of the most geologically interesting regions of the Moon. Formed in about 175 millions years ago, the crater is 40 km wide, 3.5 km deep. Learn more
The Intercrater Highlands of the lunar North Pole
Lunar polar volatiles can provide clues about solar and planetary evolutionary processes . Also, local sources of water and other volatiles may enable in-situ resource utilization for future... Learn More
SPACE TRAVEL SUPPORTED BY PROPELLANT DEPOTS
Like oases in the desert, the Spaceports network presents outlines ofa pioneering, multi-purpose logistics network of safe havens, enabling human and robotic expansion into the hostile space environment. A spaceport is an infrastructure that provides services for space vehicles and facilitates their departure and arrival. Learn More
In November 2015, NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) selected Made In Space's project for a public-private partnerships to advance Tipping Point Technologies. Funded by NASA, the project named Archinaut™ was to develop technologies and subsystems to enable the first... Learn More
OTHER RELATED TOPICS @ SPACE ECONOMY
TRANSFORMING AN ASTEROID INTO A SPACECRAFT?
To feed the Cislunar space with exotic materials, Made In Space proposes the RAMA architecture, which turns asteroids into self-sufficient spacecrafts capable returning to this location. The architecture can transport asteroids from 10 m-long to 100 . Learn More
ASTEROID REDIRECT ROBOTIC AND CREWED MISSIONS (ALMOST CANCELED!)
In November 2015, the Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST), drafted its Final Report for NASA`s Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). The primary decision was made on March 2015, to select the boulder capture option for the robotic segment... Learn More
The International Space Station (ISS) provides a challenging research environment with its exposure to extreme heat and cold cycles, ultra vacuum, atomic oxygen and high energy radiation.
Because of those space environmental effects... Learn More
LAUNCH PROPULSION SYSTEMS
Space lift to Earth orbit involves escaping the gravitational field to deliver a spacecraft for its mission in the LEO starting at about 200 miles high. The launch propulsion system’s challenge is to impart at least the orbital insertion velocity to the spacecraft in the most affordable and effective manner. Learn More
THE PROPELLANTS USED BY ROCKETS' PROPULSIONS
Currently, the most used cryogenic liquid propellants for the in-space transfer stages are the Liquid Oxygen (LO2 or LOX) and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2). However, their storage and transfer can be challenging, in particular, to prevent the boil-off for the longtime missions. Learn More
WHY RUSSIAN ROCKET ENGINES ARE SO POPULAR?
Russian and American rocket engines use liquid oxygen as oxidizer and kerosene or RP-1 (some kind of kerosene) as fuel. So, why Russian Rocket like RD-191 give a specific impulse (Isp) much higher and offering a significant reduction in propellant mass than the US? Learn More
OPERATIONAL ORBITAL LAUNCH VEHICLES
By the end of 2016, there were 82 different orbital launch vehicles operating around the world. This figure includes variants of a family of vehicles. For example, there are 10 Atlas V variants defined by the number of solid rocket boosters used, type of fairing by diameter, and type of Centaur upper stage (single or dual engine). Learn More
THE CRYOGENIC ROCKET ENGINES
The staged combustion cycle, or pre-burner cycle, is a thermodynamic cycle used in some bipropellant rocket engines. One propellant is sent through a pre-burner and is partially burned in using a small portion of the second propellant. The resulting hot gas is used to power the engine's turbines and pumps, then injected into the main combustion chamber along with the remainder of the second propellant to complete... Learn More
IN-SPACE PROPULSION TECHNOLOGIES
When a rocket leaves off its upper stages, such as the Delta's DCSS, the propulsion system begins. The main engines used provide the primary propulsion for the orbital transfer, the planetary trajectories and for ascent and landing purposes.
Whatever the type used, ancillary propulsion systems are necessary to provide certain functions such as aborts and thrust vectoring. Learn More