. Volatiles at the Lunar South Pole: mission to AMUNDSEN CRATER
Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the Apollo programme and the third mission to land on the Moon, touching down on 5 February 1971. The crew were Commander Alan B. Shepard, Jr, Stuart A. Roosa (Command Module Pilot) and Edgar D. Mitchell (Lunar Module Pilot). After landing at the destination for Apollo 13 - Shepard and Mitchell took two moon walks, adding new seismic studies to the by now familiar Apollo experiment package, and using a "lunar rickshaw" pull cart to carry their equipment...
Lunar North Pole
New Reduced Data Records (RDRs) available as part of the 32nd Planetary Data System (PDS) release include two versions of the polar illumination maps for each pole. They include this time-weighted north pole illumination map that extends from 88ºN to the lunar north pole at 90ºN, as well as other new products. These maps show how much sunlight specific locations receive over the course of a lunar year. Areas that are nearly white are almost always in the sunlight, while black areas are Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs). Credit: NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University.
Rovers and instruments that could explore these regions would normally rely on solar power and batteries for power. Even in places near the poles that receive some sunlight, it is necessary to understand how much sunlight they receive so that a rover does not accidentally become stuck in the dark long enough to run down its batteries. For more information on polar rover traverses, see Lunar Exploration: Planning the Next Steps.
Lunar South Pole
The spin axis of the Moon is titled less than two degrees, thus the lighting conditions at the poles are always extreme. The long deep shadows give the impression that the polar regions are unusually rough and thus dangerous. However, the topography is no different than that found near the equator. So, polar landings should be relatively safe, even in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs), if the spacecraft is equipped with active landing sensors (lidar or radar). The permanent shadows are formed by topographic highs, and even though these high points are often narrow, they are very inviting landing spots because many are illuminated for most of the lunar year. Future surface missions to the lunar poles will likely utilize these highly illuminated regions, where solar power is abundant, as jumping off points to determine what volatiles (water ice, methane, etc.) PSRs may hold, and how these volatiles can be utilized as resources for future human exploration. For now, you can explore the high-resolution oblique view of the illuminated rim of Shackleton crater near the South Pole, on the right.
Left: spectacular oblique view of the rim of Shackleton crater (21 km diameter, 89.66°S, 129.20°E). While no location on the Moon stays continuously illuminated, three points on the rim remain collectively sunlit for more than 90% of the year. These points are surrounded by topographic depressions that never receive sunlight, creating cold traps that can capture ices, NAC M1224655261LR [NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University].
Reference: A Global Lunar Landing Site Study to Provide the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon / Edited by David A. Kring and Daniel D. Durda / Study Prepared by Members of the LPI-JSC Lunar Exploration Summer Intern Program / LPI-JSC Center for Lunar Science and Exploration / A Member of the NASA Lunar Science Institute / Copyright 2012 / LPI Contribution No. 1694
The region poleward of 80°S is almost entirely within the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin, the largest and oldest discernible impact basin on the Moon. The study area is dominated by heavily degraded impact craters ~20–100 km in diameter. The large craters are mostly flat-floored, with the exception of two craters that exhibit central peaks. Fresh, bowl-shaped craters are rare, although Shackleton is a prime example of a crater of this type. The terrain at the South Pole is mostly pre-Nectrain basin and crater material, but also includes some Nectarian and Orientale basin materials (USGS, 2009a).
In the South pole, sites of interest are located above the 84° latitude. In this region, the largest site is on the northeastern part of the floor of the Amundsen crater. Within the smaller craters in Faustini, Haworth, and de Gerlache craters, small sites are concentrated in an elevated area between Haworth and Nobile craters.
The Amundsen crater could be an excellent choice of landing because their sites are within a PSR and is surrounded by warmer regions that are mostly illuminates. With a Central Peak and walls that have slopes shallower than 25°, it allow easy exploration.
In the South pole regions showing above, a small concentration of sites are visible mostly on the floors of medium-to-large craters. Those craters are Amundsen, Faustini, Haworth, and de Gerlache craters, as well as the plains west of Shoemaker.
The highest priority for landing sites is to have a maximum annual temperature of ≤54 K , usually within PSRs. At this point, it will be possible to study physical properties of the extremely cold regolith.
A mission needs to access areas where the NRC’s science goals can be addressed. These goals are (1) to determine the compositional state and distribution of volatiles in lunar polar regions, (2) to determine the sources for lunar polar volatiles, (3) to understand the transport, retention, alteration, and loss processes that operate on volatile materials at PSRs, (4) to understand the physical properties of the extremely cold polar regolith, and (5) to determine what the cold polar regolith reveals about the ancient solar environment .
From these criteria, the research has been limited to sites with temperatures of 54–130 K (below the sublimation point of various volatiles) and where slopes and the local geology reach NRC's goals. Thus, the focus of any measurements will be on the 9% of the Amundsen’s interior that is in permanent shadow.
VOLATILES AT THE LUNAR SOUTH POLE: MISSION TO AMUNDSEN CRATER*
*K. D. Runyon and al. - 43rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2012) PDF1619
The South polar region has ~46% more sites than the North. Its almost 4,000 km2 more coverage permit it to reach Science Goals targeted. This is the reason why, the south polar region is preferred.
The Amundsen crater is centered at 84.6°S, 85.6°E. Its diameter is about 100-km in the form of a complex crater with heavily terraced walls and prominent central peaks.
Amundsen has been formed in the late Nectarian (~3.92–3.85 Ga), though its floor is somewhat younger (Imbrian, ~3.85–3.8 Ga). The crater floor has relatively low slopes (< 5º), which are attractive for landing and rover operations. Amundsen sits on the southern limb of the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin (D ~ 2500 km), the oldest and largest discernible impact crater on the lunar surface. Because of the great depth of SPA (~13 km), Amundsen’s mineralogy is likely intermediate between mafic and felsic, due to mixing of lower crustal or upper mantle material with feldspathic highlands material . As Amundsen is a complex crater, it likely contains a broad range of geologic units, such as impact melts or volcanic material on the crater floor, bedrock outcrops on the crater wall, slumped material from high on the crater’s wall or rim, and uplifted basement rocks in the central peak. There are also many smaller (km-scale) craters in various states of degradation on Amundsen’s floor.
Amundsen is a particularly attractive landing site due to its sizeable Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs), which may thermally trap volatiles, and its relatively high hydrogen abundances (~100 to ~150 ppm) set amongst diverse geologic units.
Moreover, one mission can land on a relatively flat crater floor in the sunlight, where solar power is available, and then make brief traverses into shadowed regions.
The study identified two landing sites (A and B) on the floor of Amundsen crater that are lit up to ~25% of a lunation. Those sites provide access to stations within PSRs while providing a base of operations in an illuminated region. Having the ability to establish stations in both sunlit regions and adjacent PSRs also has several scientific advantages.
The stations outside of PSRs can serve as experimental controls for the processes that affect volatile distribution within PSRs. Contrasts between the two regions can also be used to evaluate transport mechanisms. Remotely observed circular polarization ratios (CPR) also vary around both landing sites, providing an opportunity to groundtruth the global data set and test the effects of ground ice and surface roughness on those CPR values. Temperatures derived from the Diviner radiometer also helped define station locations.
The above illustration show an enhanced view of recommended sites in the South Polar region satisfying Science Goal 4c: Understant the transport, retention, alteration, and loss processes that operate on volatile materials at Permanetly Shaded Lunar Regions.
The Area A (83.93°S, 90.45°E) consists of six science stations, all with elevated hydrogen levels (~110– 123 ppm), navigable slopes (< 15°), and with temperatures ranging from ~23–100 K and averaging ~40–50 K. Stations A1 and A6 address three of the five NRC science goals (b, c, and e), while A2 to A5 address them all. The maximum temperature (Tmax)distribution places constraints on stations’ expected volatile abundance based on volatiles’ sublimation points. Volatile sublimation temperatures near the Tmax of the stations include CO2 and hydrogen sulfide (Stations A2 to A5); water and ammonium hydrosulfide (A1); and toluene (A6).
These stations explore the distribution of volatiles in several geologic sites that will have variable regolith properties and potentially cavities for icy deposits, while also providing access to geology that address other NRC goals. Station A1 is in a small PSR amidst an interesting complex of overlapping, asymmetric simple craters. A2 is on flat terrain while A3 and A4 are on degraded crater rims, though the latter is also near fresh craters and their ejecta. A5’s location on a debris slump will allow sampling of a range of lithologies, particularly from higher on Amundsen’s wall and rim, while A6 is on the terraced wall. All but Station A6 are within the 10 km astronaut walk-back safety zone.
Fig. 1.Amundsen crater, showing PSRs (dark blue), sites where all five science goals can be met simultaneously (light blue), proposed science stations (circles), and proposed landing sites (stars). Radii of 10 and 20 km from the landing sites shown as solid & dashed lines. Base map is LRO/WAC/LOLA shaded relief.
Area B (83.82°S, 87.53°E) consists of seven science stations; all have elevated hydrogen levels (between ~98–125 ppm ), slopes < 6° , and temperatures  ranging from ~23–239 K with an average of ~37–73 K. Stations B1 and B2 address none of the science goals directly but serve as controls. Stations B3, B6, and B7 address all five of the NRC goals, while stations B4 and B5 address goals b, c, and e. Area B also allows sampling in various geologic regimes. Station B1 is in a diurnal region at the base of Amundsen’s central peak. B2 is in a small PSR on the bottom of a small, fresh crater while B3 is on the flat Amundsen floor very near the terraced walls. Stations B4 and B5 are on different debris slumps, allowing for sampling of stratigraphically higher and laterally diverse material. B6 samples a simple crater on Amundsen’s terrace. Station B7 also samples the terrace, though in a location that also satisfies all five NRC goals.
Amundsen crater is a prime area for studying lunar volatiles. Its geologic diversity, elevated hydrogen abundances, cold PSRs adjacent to warmer diurnal regions, and overall accessibility make it an appealing and interesting target for future lunar missions from both science and mission planning perspectives. This is in contrast to the more limited science opportunities at Shackleton crater, which has steeper walls, simpler geology, and whose interior is entirely in permanent shadow.
The Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs) in the South Pole and the longitude/latitude grid. Credit: lroc.asu.edu/NASA