***NASA CLOSING OUT ASTEROID REDIRECT MISSION***
THEN, WHAT WAS THE CONCEPT OF THE ASTEROID REDIRECT MISSION?
In November 2015, the Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST), draft for public his Final Report for NASA`s Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). The primary decision was made on March 2015, to select the boulder capture option for the robotic segment of ARM with a launch scheduled for the end of 2021. For the crew's segment, the launch was planned for December 2025. But, it was decided to mature the mission with one more year, 2026.
So, the robotic mission will be the first of its kind to visit a large Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA), greater than 100 meter of diameter, at the end of 2021. After many scientific's measurements, it go on the surface, collect a multi-ton boulder and return it to a stable lunar orbit. Five years later, astronauts will be launched for rendezvous with the boulder, exploring it and will finish the mission by returning samples to Earth.
Following final motion of the boulder, the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) will transfer into a Halo Orbit around it. Here, ARV will applicate the new Enhanced Gravity Tractor (EGT) technique with the boulder. Sure, that will increase the spacecraft mass and the gravitational force between them.
The conceptual refinement of option B is focused on a hybrid option that includes two 7-degree of freedom arms, each with an end-effector tool, and a Contact and Restraint Subsystem (CRS). The microspine end effector gripper uses hundreds of fishhook-like spines to grab the natural surface features of the boulder during capture. The CRS attenuates the contact forces during the ARV’s descent to the NEA’s surface, stabilizes it while on the surface, and provides a mechanical push-off during ascent from the surface.
This approach avoids directly pluming the surface of the NEA with the ARV’s reaction control subsystem to minimize contamination of the spacecraft’s solar arrays and other sensitive components. The CRS design consists of a set of three legs with four degrees of freedom, each. Each CRS arm has a contact pad at its tip. The contact pads allow the collection of surface regolith that provide geological/geographical context sample in addition to the captured boulder.
The Asteroid Redirect Vehicule (ARV) includes a Solar Electric Propulsion Module (SEPM), a Mission Module (MM) and a Capture Module (CM).
The power and propulsion are provided by the SEPM and the MM provides all of the other spacecraft command, control, and communications functions. The SEPM and MM are very similar for both missions' options, A and B.
As we see in the concept animation, published Mars 26, 2016, the Robotic Mission will utilize an advanced 50 kW-class Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) spacecraft with sensors and a robotic Capture Module (CM). In approach, it characterize the parent NEA, identify it, select candidate boulders, allow contact on the surface and collect the selected boulder.
Robotic capture risk reduction includes testing a 7 degree of freedom (DOF) boulder capture. The systems using is already under development for satellite servicing applications. During tests, an early prototype end effector with a newly fabricated larger, all-metal version of the tool will be used.
NASA published Mars 25, 2015, this animation illustrates the crewed part of ARM. It show how astronauts will travel to the asteroid using NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket and the Orion spacecraft, investigate the boulder and return a sample of the asteroid back to Earth.
ASTEROID REDIRECT MISSION UPDATE NAC HEO COMMITTEE JANUARY 13, 2015
Possible other option for the asteroid redirect mission.
The power provided by the SEPM to the solar arrays is 50 kW at the beginning of the mission (BOM) and 40 kW into the solar electric propulsion system.
It will be notified that, NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) provide, by its reference system, a total impulse greater than 30 times the current deep space and commercial capabilities. So, we have a significantly more powerful solar array, thruster and power processor technology.
In the Mission Module we have the avionics, sensors and software required to control the spacecraft during all phases of mission operations.
One of the major objective of the ARM is the development of a high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle that can operate many years in interplanetary space. As we know, this capacity is critical for deep-space exploration missions.
Another major objective is the interaction between a natural in space object and astronauts. Again, that will provide necessary experience in systems and operations required for future human exploration to Moon, Mars and its moons, Phobos and Deimos.
THE CREW MISSION WAS SCHEDULED FOR THE END OF 2026
Once the asteroidal mass is returned in cis-lunar orbit, the ARM crewed mission will be launched aboard the Orion spacecraft (ready at this time). This vehicle will serves for transport, habitat and airlock, as formulated in the reference mission concept. In that reference concept, Orion is launched into the very powerful Space Launch System (SLS).
Powered by these advanced vehicles, it will be easy to make rendezvous and dock with the robotic spacecraft. Once there, the crewed mission will demonstrate early human exploration capabilities in longer operations in deep space, rendezvous and proximity operations, life support, and EVA capabilities. To be able to do that, two EVAs, given a time of four hours each, are currently envisioned to explore, select, collect, and secure samples. A variety of sample collection options is actually examined.
On the left, we see the Outbound and Inbound trip for the crewed part of the mission. On the right, EVA' suits that will be used by astronauts.
PROPOSED SCENARIO: Outbound- Flight Day 1 – Launch/Trans Lunar Injection /Flight Day 1-7 – Outbound Trans-Lunar Cruise / Flight Day 7 – Lunar Gravity Assist / Flight Day 7-9 – Lunar to DRO Cruise /// Joint Operations /// Flight Day 9-10 – Rendezvous / Flight Day 11 – EVA #1 / Flight Day 12 – EVA #2 Prep / Flight Day 13 – EVA #2 / Flight Day 14 – Departure Prep / Flight Day 15 – Departure
PROPOSED SCENARIO: Inbound- Flight Day 15 – 20 – DRO* to Lunar Cruise / Flight Day 20 – Lunar Gravity Assist / Flight Day 20-26 – Inbound Trans-Lunar Cruise / Flight Day 26 – Earth Entry and Recovery.
* DRO: Direct Retrograd Orbit
MISSIONS WAS SUPPORTED BY LOCKEED MARTIN. HOW?
Lockheed Martin is the prime contractor builder of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), NASA’s first spacecraft designed for long deep space exploration of humans. Orion will transport astronauts to interplanetary destinations beyond low Earth orbit, such as asteroids, the moon and eventually Mars, and return them safely back to Earth.
Picture of the Orion capsule with the upper stage attached. Credit: Spaceflight.com
The Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), launched December 5, 2014, was the first high orbital systems' test for the Orion spacecraft. This historic EFT-1 launch was a significant step forward for the America’s space program, because it was the first step of the journey to Mars.
During this test, the Orion’s systems has been pushed to its limit, providing important data to engineers about the heat shield performance, separation events, avionics and software, the attitude control and guidance, the parachute deployment, and recovery operations. All these features are critical to the crew safety and will helps to validate designs of the spacecraft.
Orion Exploration Flight Test 1 Launch (EF-1), December 5, 2014, as seen on NASAtv.
TheExploration Mission 1 (EM-1) is the first planned flight of the Space Launch System (SLS) carrying the second uncrewed Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Credit: NASA
Next step: Being ready for the Exploration Mission-1
During Exploration Mission-1, Orion will travel thousands of miles beyond the moon over the course of about three-weeks. To get ready for that mission a full-size test version of Orion's service module provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) will be tested at NASA's Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. Testing of the service module begins in early 2016.
ASTEROID 2008 EV5
420mX410mX390m / Velocity: 4.41 km/s / Aphelion: 1.04 AU / Spin Period: 3.725 hr / C(volatile rich)/ Radar –boulders and extremely pronounced bulge at equator suggests movement of loose material.
NASA has identified the NEA 2008 EV5 as the reference target for the ARRM. 2008 EV5 has been well characterized by ground-based radar and in the infrared wavelengths, and has orbital and physical characteristics that are compatible with the planned ARM timeline and operations. Specifically, mass return greater than 20 t is possible with the launch of the ARRM at the end of 2020 and the ARCM in late 2025. Ground-based measurements of 2008 EV5 show that it is a carbonaceous chondrite asteroid (C-type) that is believed to be water/volatile-rich and possibly may contain significant amounts of organic materials.
For Now, NASA'S Osiris-Rex Mission to Asteroid Bennu will bring to Earth a Precious Sample... As Soon Than 2023!
Bennu's Journey is a 6-minute animated movie about NASA's OSIRIS-REx mission, Asteroid Bennu, and the formation of our solar system. Born from the rubble of a violent collision, hurled through space for millions of years, Asteroid Bennu has had a tough life in a rough neighborhood - the early solar system.
Bennu's Journey shows what is known and what remains mysterious about the evolution of Bennu and planets. By retrieving a sample of Bennu, OSIRIS-REx will teach us more about the raw ingredients of the solar system and our own origins.
Learn more about NASA’s OSIRIS-REx mission and the making of Bennu’s Journey: http://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/b...
NASA has also additional candidate targets for ARM Mission (Ryugu, Bennu, and Itokawa) and will continue the search for additional asteroids and make a final selection approximately one year prior to launch.
However, 2008 EV5 provides a valid target that can be used to help with the formulation and development of the mission, which is the rationale for it being the NEA around which the FAST focused its attention.
THE SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM (SLS)
The first launch of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) is scheduled for 2018, with a capability of over 70 t or 154,000 lbm of payload to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Not only its payload is greater than the twice of the Space Shuttle, the SLS will be the first in over 40 years that will have the capability to go well beyond LEO.
In parallel with the development of the SLS, NASA work on two other exploration systems, that is the Orion Program and the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO)Program. The Orion spacecraft is designed to carry astronauts on exploration missions into Deep Space, means for long travel. The GSDO Program is converting the facilities at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC) into a next-generation spaceport capable of supporting launches by differents vehicles.
Named SLS Block 1, it will provide a 70 t payload delivery capability to LEO. This initial SLS test flight will accommodate an uncrewed Orion and a number of Secondary Payloads(SPL). Its purpose is to test SLS launch capabilities and Orion’s ability for safe translunar crew return.
This is planned to be available no earlier than 2018 on Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1).
In the Proving Ground, NASA will learn to conduct complex operations in a deep space environment that allow crews to return to Earth in a matter of days. Primarily operating in cislunar space, NASA will advance and validate capabilities required for human exploration of Mars.
• A series of Exploration Missions, starting with EM-1, the first integrated test of SLS and Orion, anticipated in 2018
• The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission in 2020 that will collect a large boulder from a near-Earth asteroid, then ferry it to the Proving Ground and the Asteroid Redirect Crew Mission that will allow astronauts to investigate and sample the asteroid boulder (ALMOST CANCELLED)
• An initial deep-space habitation facility for long-duration systems testing Autonomous
operations, including rendezvous and docking and state of the art information technology
• Concepts to minimize resupply needs through reduction, reuse, and recycling of consumables, packaging, and materials
• Other key operational capabilities required to become Earth Independent
Earth Independent activities build on what we learn on International Space Station and in cislunar space to enable human missions to the Mars vicinity, including the Martian moons, and eventually the Martian surface. With humans on Mars, we will be able to advance science and technology in ways only dreamed of with current robotic explorers. Future Mars missions will represent a collaborative effort among NASA and its partners—a global achievement that marks a transition in humanity’s expansion as we go to Mars not just to visit, but to stay.
• Living and working within transit and surface habitats that support human life for years, with only routine maintenance
• Harvesting Martian resources to create fuel, water, oxygen, and building materials
• Leveraging advanced communication systems to relay data and results from science and
exploration excursions with a 20-minute delay.
First to Explore a Dwarf Planets
The spacecraft was launched in September 27, 2007, in the directions of Vesta and Ceres. They were chosen because, while both speak to conditions and processes early in the formation of the solar system, they weredeveloped into two different kinds of bodies.
After traveling nearly four years and 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers), Dawn has been captured by Vesta's gravity, and there currently are 1,800 miles (2,900 kilometers) between the asteroid and the spacecraft. The giant asteroid and its new neighbor are approximately 114 million miles (184 million kilometers) away from Earth.
The movie was produced by members of Dawn's framing camera team at the German Aerospace Center, DLR, using images from Dawn's high-altitude mapping orbit. During that phase of the mission, which lasted from August to October 2015, the spacecraft circled Ceres at an altitude of about 900 miles (1,450 kilometers). "The simulated overflight shows the wide range of crater shapes that we have encountered on Ceres. The viewer can observe the sheer walls of the crater Occator, and also Dantu and Yalode, where the craters are a lot flatter," said Ralf Jaumann, a Dawn mission scientist at DLR. Dawn is the first mission to visit Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. After orbiting asteroid Vesta for 14 months in 2011 and 2012, Dawn arrived at Ceres in March 2015. The spacecraft is currently in its final and lowest mapping orbit, at about 240 miles (385 kilometers) from the surface. Dawn's mission is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Dawn is a project of the directorate's Discovery Program, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. UCLA is responsible for overall Dawn mission science. Orbital ATK Inc., in Dulles, Virginia, designed and built the spacecraft. The German Aerospace Center, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Italian Space Agency and Italian National Astrophysical Institute are international partners on the mission team.
For a complete list of mission participants, visit: http://dawn.jpl.nasa.gov/mission or http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=4836