The International Space Station orbits 200 miles above our heads, hurtling around the Earth at 17500 thousand miles an hour. This film explores how the space station was made possible through a series of five engineering breakthroughs. Using high-end computer generated imagery that makes up 50% of the film, this film reveals the incredible stories behind these structures and the inventions that have pushed the boundaries of science. 

 INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION (ISS) - HABITAT CONCEPT

The International Space Station (ISS) is composed of a Russian Orbital Segment developed by the Russian Federal Space Agency,  a United States Orbital Segment (USOS) developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Space Agency (ESA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).

The USOS consists of pressurized habitable modules that are approximately 4.5 m in diameter with varying lengths between 5 and 11 meters. The sizes of these modules were dictated by the cargo bay size and lift capability of the Space Shuttle. 

There are several modules remaining in the ISS Program that have been considered for outfitting and utilization on orbit and were previously described for ISS derived Deep Space Habitats. The modules considered are the habitat module (HAB), which was the structural test article for the Destiny module (LAB), the structural test article for the Unity module (Node 1), and two Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLM), Raffaello and Donatello. Although the Space Shuttle is no longer available to launch these modules, they could be used in future missions to deep space because they fit within the payload capability of current Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV). Modifications to the structural load path of the ISS modules might be required, but the basic size is right for ELV delivery to orbit.

ISS Derived Concepts

Several ISS derived concepts have been studied to determine the feasibility of using existing ISS modules available on the ground or fabricating new modules of a similar size and design. Two basic concepts are presented here to illustrate the potential they have for Deep Space Habitats. All are at a vey high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) because they are highly reliant on exiting ISS technologies. It is likely these designs could be implemented through the existing ISS International Partner agreements and produced through the existing ISS contracting mechanisms. In other words, these vehicles could become an extension of the existing ISS Program. Both ISS derived concepts were planned for launch on multiple ELV’s to the ISS for final assembly and outfitting.

The Configuration A is designed to support 4-crew for 500 days with a Node 1 element and two MPLMs. The second MPLM between the MPCV and the Node is designed primarily for logistics storage and the additional systems needed for 500-day missions. If it were removed, the vehicle could still support 4-crew, but only for 60-day missions.
For a 60-day habitat, the second MPLM is removed, yielding a habitat mass of 30,007 kg with a pressurized volume of 185 m3 and a habitable volume of 76 m3. For comparative purposes, the 60-day configuration is considered suitable for all Lunar vicinity missions.

ISS node 3

Inside the ESA Space LAB
TheConfiguration B is designed to support 4-crew for 500 days with a HAB module element and one MPLM. The MPLM between the Orion MPCV and the HAB is designed primarily for logistics storage needed for 500-day missions. If it were removed, the vehicle could still support 4-crew, but only for 60-day missions.
The MPLM has two axial ports. One axial port has the MPCV attached and the other has a tunnel structure designed for use as an Airlock and a strong back for externally mounted solar arrays, batteries, and radiators. The other end of the tunnel has the primary HAB attached, containing the crew life support functions. Beyond the HAB is a notional EUS.
The tunnel/airlock can accommodate an EVA hatch and the FlexCraft. An ISS derived robotic arm is also envisioned to be a part of the robotic systems available on this habitat.

The habitable elements include the HAB module with all crew life support systems, a connecting tunnel/airlock, and a MPLM for logistics to support the mission crew size and duration. All internal equipment is built into the module for on orbit servicing and does not use the ISS rack system.
The total mass of the 500-day habitat is 45,573 kg with a pressurized volume of 193 m3 and a habitable volume of 90 m3.
The Node 1 module is in the center of this configuration with the primary MPLM and connecting tunnel/airlock on the left axial port and the logistics MPLM on the right axial port.
The interior layout uses the standard ISS rack system except for the crew quarter built in to the end dome of the primary MPLM.
The Node 1 radial ports contain a single person, free-flyer vehicle called FlexCrafton one side and an ISS derived Cupola on the other—both specifically designed to support robotic and EVA assembly and exploration operations. An ISS derived robotic arm is also envisioned to be a part of the robotic systems available on this Habitat. The other two radial ports are open for a commercial Logistics Resupply Module and an internationally developed reusable Lunar Lander.
Surrounding the crew quarters is a Water Wall for radiation protection, so the crew can retreat to their quarters during a Solar Particle Event (SPE). Not all of the primary and secondary systems could fit into the MPLM with this layout, so the racks in the Node are also used for life support functions.

The total mass of the 500-day Habitat is 49,578 kg with a pressurized volume of 281 m3 and a habitable volume of 108 m3. This configuration is considered suitable for the asteroid and Mars miss ions.

ISS quest airlock

Inside  DESTINY  LABOTARY

Above you see Configuration A for the ISS Derived Node + Airlock + 1 & 2 MPLMs. The two habitats shown provide habitation for 4-crew on 60-day missions, or 500-day missions with the addition of a second MPLM. 

Above we have the Configuration B for the ISS Derived HAB + Airlock + MPLM. The two ISS derived habitats shown provide habitation for 4-crew on 60-day missions, or 500-day missions with the addition of a MPLM. 

Reference &Credit: "Habitat Concepts for Deep Space Exploration" by David Smitherman, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, 35812 and Brand N. Griffin of Gray Research, Huntsville, Alabama, 35806.

THE TURBOLIFT

The TURBOLIFT is a Linear Sled Hybrid Artificial Gravity concept (LSH AG) thatcould be essential to enabling crewed long-duration lunar stays, cis-lunar exploration, Mars orbital missions, exploration of Martian moons, Martian landings, or any further destination in our solar system. LEARN MORE

ADVANCING TORPOR INDUCING TRANSFER HABITATS

SpaceWorks Enterprises, Inc. (SEI) proposes an advanced habitat system for transporting crews between the Earth and deep space destinations. During the in-space mission segments or travel, their innovative habitat design will be capable of cycling them through inactive, non-cryonic torpor sleep states. LEARN MORE

SAFE HAVEN CONFIGURATIONS FOR DEEP SPACE TRANSIT HABITAT

Credit: David Smitherman* Tara Polsgrove†, and Justin Rowe‡ NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

For long duration missions beyond LEO, as well as Mars transit missions of about 1100 days, a quick return will not be possible. For that, the mass penalty for multiple volumes and operating has been always an important concern for mission concepts. LEARN MORE

CIRCULAR TRACKS AS SPACE SETTLEMENT

The train concept have a sequence of connected cars running on a track. People in it will be able to move between thems as they can onboard a typical train. The general design for all HGV Cars (HGVC)s isto be the same size, but custom-size cars can be accommodated.

HGVC Tilted Cabin on Track

The tracks and the HGV chassis can be designed to support the loads as needed. LEARN MORE

SPACE HABITAT: WHERE, HOW AND WHAT KIND?

The Cislunar space, is the place to support Asteroid Mission Concepts, for the assembly of Mars Transit Vehicles, for Orbital Habitats, as well as support service for international and/or commercial interests. Learn More

SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM - HABITAT CONCEPT

The Skylab was a large single module habitat that provided about 555 m3 of habitable volume for about 49 metric tons (mt). This is similar to many modules on the ISS where ten times the mass at 450 mt resulted in less habitable volume at 355 m3. Learn More

 

Video Credit: A.C. Clarke - Rama Created by Eric Bruneton Original video: http://ebruneton.free.fr/rama3/rama.html

The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest orbiting laboratory ever built.

When fully complete, the ISS will weigh about 420,000 kilograms (925,000 pounds). It will measure 74 meters (243 feet) long by 110 meters (361 feet) wide. This is equivalent to a football field, including the end zones. The pressurized volume will be 935 cubic meters (33,023 cubic feet), larger than a five-bedroom house. The solar array surface area will be 2,500 square meters (27,000 square feet), which is an acre of solar panels and enough to power 10 averagesized homes with 110 kilowatts of power.

When fully complete, the ISS will weigh about 420,000 kilograms (925,000 pounds). It will measure 74 meters (243 feet) long by 110 meters (361 feet) wide. This is equivalent to a football field, including the end zones. The pressurized volume will be 935 cubic meters (33,023 cubic feet), larger than a five-bedroom house. The solar array surface area will be 2,500 square meters (27,000 square feet), which is an acre of solar panels and enough to power 10 averagesized homes with 110 kilowatts of power.

The ISS orbits between 370 and 460 kilometers (230–286 miles) above Earth’s surface. The ISS orbits at a 51.6-degree inclination around Earth. This angle covers 90 percent of the populated area of Earth. Every 3 days, the ISS passes over the same place on Earth. It takes about 90 minutes for the ISS to circle Earth one time. The ISS orbits Earth 16 times per day, so astronauts can see 16 sunrises and 16 sunsets each day!

During the daylight periods, temperatures reach 200 ºC, while temperatures during the night periods drop to -200 ºC. The view of Earth from the ISS reveals part of the planet, not the whole planet.

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Orbital ATK’s vision for the next step toward human space missions to Mars employs the flight-proven Cygnus advanced maneuvering spacecraft as a human habitat in cislunar space. In the early 2020s it will launch the initial habitat on NASA’s SLS rocket. Featuring a modular design, the habitat will serve both as a destination for crewed missions and as an unmanned test-bench to prove the technologies needed for long-duration human space missions. The habitat is also envisioned as a base for lunar missions by international partners or commercial ventures. With additional habitation and propulsion modules, the habitat could be outfitted for a Mars pathfinder mission. Credit: Northrop Grumman

This video shows the animation of the process of transporting, assembling and testing the Habitat Demonstration Unit - Deep Space Habitat configuration,  deployed during the 2011 Desert RATS analog field tests.