The Space Launch System (SLS)

The first launch of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) is scheduled for 2018, with a capability of over 70 t or 154,000 lbm of payload to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Not only its payload is greater than the twice of the Space Shuttle, the SLS will be the first in over 40 years that will have the capability to go well beyond LEO.

In parallel with the development of the SLS, NASA work on two other exploration systems, that is the Orion Program and the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO)Program. The Orion spacecraft is designed to carry astronauts on exploration missions into Deep Space, means for long travel. The GSDO Program is converting the facilities at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC) into a next-generation spaceport capable of supporting launches by differents vehicles. LEARN MORE


Crews'preparation for the ISS

NASA and Private Space Companies elaborated a Crew Transportation System (CTS) to orbital destinations based on a Design Reference Missions (DRMs) framework. 

For the CTS to provide successful services to the ISS, 2 major objectives must be met. The first one is to insure a crew rotation capability for 4NASA or NASA-sponsored crew-members. LEARN MORE

Virgin Galactic

Blue Origin, LLC


The Cislunar space, is the place to support Asteroid Mission Concepts, for the assembly of Mars Transit Vehicles, for Orbital Habitats, as well as support service for international and/or commercial interests. Learn More

International Space Station (ISS) - Habitat Concept

The United States Orbital Segment consists of pressurized habitable modules that are approximately 4.5 m in diameter with varying lengths between 5 and 11 meters. The sizes of these modules were dictated by the cargo bay size and lift capability of the Space Shuttle. Learn More


The Skylab was a large single module habitat that provided about 555 m3 of habitable volume for about 49 metric tons (mt). This is similar to many modules on the ISS where ten times the mass at 450 mt resulted in less habitable volume at 355 m3. Learn More

Safe Haven Configurations for Deep Space Transit Habitats

Smoke, fire on board, as well as pressure loss or a collision with another spacecraft during docking or undocking operations could provide For Mars missions, ground operations will be limited, quick return impossible.

Above it is showing a new concept utilizing the pressure vessel volumes planned for the Exploration Upper Stage (EUS), which yielded a convenient large volume habitat with a closed loop system paired with a smaller volume using a 30-day open loop system. Learn More


The Lunar Orbital Platform, "Gateway", or LOP-G

As reflected in the NASA's Exploration Campaign, the next step in the human spaceflight is the establishment of U.S. pre-eminence in the cislunar space through the operations and the deployment of a U.S.-led Lunar Orbital Platform, “Gateway,” (LOP-G).

The Gateway will be constructed in orbit, incrementally, with the uses of the American-built Orion spacecraft and the Space Launch System (SLS), as well as commercial launch vehicles.

In fact, NASA plans to build the Gateway with just five or six rocket launches, compared to the 34 launches it took to build the space station. Large parts will be set up by automatic assembly, mean robotically. LEARN MORE

Chang'e-4's mission to the Moon will be Historical!

For the first time a country will land a spacecraft on the far side of the Moon! Chang'e-4 will be the fourth mission in its series named after the Chinese moon goddess.

In October of 1959, the Luna 3 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Luna 3 was the third spacecraft to reach the Moon and the first to send back pictures of the Moon's far side. The pictures were noisy and indistinct, but because the Moon always presents the same face to the Earth, they offered views of a part of the Moon never seen before.

The far side of the Moon is surprisingly different. The most striking difference evident in the Luna 3 pictures is the absence of the large, dark seas of cooled lava, called maria, that cover a substantial fraction of the Earth-facing near side. The far side is instead densely peppered with impact craters of every size and age. Published: September 26, 2017. Credit: NASA

The two-part missions of Chang'e-4 will focusing on the low-frequency astronomy and the investigation of the subsurface, the topography and the mineralogical composition of the lunar far side. Learn More



ISPACE - Expand our planet. Expand our future.

ISPACE has already started the development of its small, agile and modular lunar lander. The main goal is to provide a regular transportation service to the Moon.

Japan-based lunar exploration company ispace, inc. raises $90.2 million to be used for development of lunar lander and two lunar missions by 2020. Learn More

ROSCOMOS gives OK to LUNA-25

The Russian Luna-Glob mission, currently scheduled for launch in the mid-2020s, will study the physical conditions and composition of the regolith near the lunar south pole, as well as test new soft-landing technologies. Learn More

Chang'e-5 will return Moon's samples

Since the Apollo's missions, China will be the first to return to Earth, samples from the near side of the Moon. That will be the mission of Chang'e-5, scheduled for November 2019, near Mons Rümker in Oceanus Procellarum, a large area of lunar mare in the northwest region of the Moon. Learn More

Scientists work on China's Chang'e-5 landing and ascent vehicles. Credit: Framegrab/CCTV

Astrobotic will revolutionize the Moon

Astrobotic is contracting payloads to Trans-Lunar Insertion (TLI), Lunar Orbit, and Surface on the Moon at Lacus Mortis for theirFirst Mission. Learn More



Tycho has a diameter of 85 km and a depth of about 4.5 km. Located at 11.1° West and 43.4° South, Tycho is the youngest large crater on the nearside of the Moon with a conspicuous ray system. Learn More

Pit crater/lava tubes-33.22°E, 8.336°N - Mare Tranquillitatis

Lunar pit craters are small, steep-walled collapse features that suggest subsurface voids. Over 200 pit craters are located in impact melt and are relatively shallow, at about 10 m. Learn More

The Aristarchus plateau - 50°W, 25°N

Aristarchus crater is located on the edge of its Plateau, one of the most geologically interesting regions of the Moon. Formed in about 175 millions years ago, the crater is 40 km wide, 3.5 km deep. Learn more

The Intercrater Highlands of the lunar North Pole 

Lunar polar volatiles can provide clues about solar and planetary evolutionary processes . Also, local sources of water and other volatiles may enable in-situ resource utilization for future... Learn More

Space Travel supported by Propellant Depots

Like oases in the desert, the Spaceports network presents outlines ofa pioneering, multi-purpose logistics network of safe havens, enabling human and robotic expansion into the hostile space environment. A spaceport is an infrastructure that provides services for space vehicles and facilitates their departure and arrival. Learn More
In November 2015, NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) selected Made In Space's project for a public-private partnerships to advance Tipping Point Technologies. Funded by NASA, the project named Archinaut™ was to develop technologies and subsystems to enable the first... Learn More


To feed the Cislunar space with exotic materials, Made In Space proposes the RAMA architecture, which turns asteroids into self-sufficient spacecrafts capable returning to this location. The architecture can transport asteroids from 10 m-long to 100 . Learn More

Asteroid Redirect Robotic and Crewed Missions (Almost Canceled!)

In November 2015, the Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST), drafted its Final Report for NASA`s Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). The primary decision was made on March 2015, to select the boulder capture option for the robotic segment... Learn More 


The total mass of all asteroids is estimated at 930 miles (1,500 km) in diameter, this is less than half the size of the Moon. Learn More

Space Environmental Effects on Materials

The International Space Station (ISS) provides a challenging research environment with its exposure to extreme heat and cold cycles, ultra vacuum, atomic oxygen and high energy radiation.
Because of those space environmental effects... Learn More


Space lift to Earth orbit involves escaping the gravitational field to deliver a spacecraft for its mission in the LEO starting at about 200 miles high. The launch propulsion system’s challenge is to impart at least the orbital insertion velocity to the spacecraft in the most affordable and effective manner. Learn More

The Propellants used by Rockets' Propulsions

Currently, the most used cryogenic liquid propellants for the in-space transfer stages are the Liquid Oxygen (LO2 or LOX) and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2). However, their storage and transfer can be challenging, in particular, to prevent the boil-off for the longtime missions. Learn More

Why Russian Rocket Engines are so Popular?

Russian and American rocket engines use liquid oxygen as oxidizer and kerosene or RP-1 (some kind of kerosene) as fuel. So, why Russian Rocket like RD-191 give a specific impulse (Isp) much higher and offering a significant reduction in propellant mass than the US? Learn More

Operational Orbital Launch Vehicles

By the end of 2016, there were 82 different orbital launch vehicles operating around the world. This figure includes variants of a family of vehicles. For example, there are 10 Atlas V variants defined by the number of solid rocket boosters used, type of fairing by diameter, and type of Centaur upper stage (single or dual engine). Learn More


The staged combustion cycle, or pre-burner cycle, is a thermodynamic cycle used in some bipropellant rocket engines. One propellant is sent through a pre-burner and is partially burned in using a small portion of the second propellant. The resulting hot gas is used to power the engine's turbines and pumps, then injected into the main combustion chamber along with the remainder of the second propellant to complete... Learn More


When a rocket leaves off its upper stages, such as the Delta's DCSS, the propulsion system begins. The main engines used provide the primary propulsion for the orbital transfer, the planetary trajectories and for ascent and landing purposes.
Whatever the type used, ancillary propulsion systems are necessary to provide certain functions such as aborts and thrust vectoring. Learn More



Launched in October 1997 by a Titan IVB booster rocket with an orbiter of 2,125 kg, the Huygens probe of 320 kg and 3,132 kg of propellants, the spacecraft weighed a total of 5,712 kg. That is one of the largest, heaviest and most complex interplanetary spacecraft ever built. After nearly 7 years of travel, it reached Saturn and its moons in July 2004. Learn More


The UltraViolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS), a box of 4 telescopes, creates pictures by observing ultraviolet light. In ultraviolet wavelengths of light, gases are observable and UVIS determines what type it is by splitting the light into its component wavelengths, or colors. Learn More

Saturn's auroral emissions

The ultraviolet's view of Saturn's rings

The Huygens Probe's separation from Cassini Orbiter

Huygens separated from the Cassini spacecraft on December 25, 2004, using aspring-loaded separation mechanism, called the spin eject device. This device provided a nominal relative separation velocity of 33 cm/s and a nominal spin of 7.5 rpm to provide inertial stability during the ballistic trajectory and atmospher entry.
Huygens' Probe did its descent through Titan's hazy cloud layers from an altitude of about 1,270 km. Learn More


With its 5150-km diameter, Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and the 2nd-largest planetary satellite in Milky Way after Ganymede (5276 km). But, it is the only natural satellite known to have a dense atmosphere with clear evidence of stable bodies of surface liquid. Its atmosphere is largely nitrogen with clouds of methane and ethane. The climate is dominated by seasonal weather patterns as on Earth with its rain and wind, which creates some dunes, rivers, lakes, seas and deltas. Learn More


The choice of a 2047 landing date on Titan’s Saturn moon it’s not only to ensures continuous lighting conditions for surface imaging, but also allows for direct communications with Earth.
Why? From the Kraken Mare, Earth is never more than 6° from the Sun. As such, it was decided to not use an orbiter (like Cassini) for the mission and so, it we possible to double the isotope power system of the submarine. Learn More

The Fantastic Voyage of JUNO to JUPITER

The U.S. orbiter JUNO was launched on August 5, 2011, in the direction of Jupiter. The main goals are to Reveal the story of the formation and evolution of Jupiter. How did Jupiter form? Does it have a solid core? How is its vast magnetic field generated? Learn More

Why some Spacecrafts missions are extended?

An extended mission is possible when more valuable scientific data can be received and the spacecrafts are fit to pursue their travels in space. Learn More


The C  and the S types are the most common asteroids founded in-space. They includes some organic compounds, water-ice or stony/metal combination. Psyche is made only of metal! Learn More


NASA is operating about 60 Science missions with over 70 spacecraft, most of which involve collaboration with international partners or other U.S. agencies. Work on over 40 missions in formulation and development continues. Learn More

The FY 2019 budget request includes $10.5 billion to pursue an exploration campaign that will focus on transitioning LEO operations to commercial providers and returning humans to the Moon and cislunar space, with eventual missions to Mars and beyond. NASA will evolve its core capabilities through continued technical advancements and new approaches and industrial partnerships to maintain the U.S.’s leadership role in human spaceflight. 

The campaign will be enabled by pursuing near-term milestones for lunar exploration, such as the commercial launch of the power propulsion element, a key element of the Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway. A new Lunar Discovery and Exploration program would support innovative approaches to achieve human and science exploration goals by funding contracts for commercial transportation services and the development of small rovers and instrument to meet lunar science and exploration needs.