A Spacecraft reaches the orbital level when it goes toLow-Earth Orbit (LEO) between 180 –3000 km –High Earth Orbit (HEO) –Geocentric 35,786 km
At those orbits, the Tourist Industry can offer spending long periods of time in microgravity at ISS or on private space stations. One example is Space Adventures where 7 private citizens can goes at ISS for 8 missions at a cost of $20M to $40M per trip. At this level, we can do some research and conduct experiments in microgravity and life sciences.
For Commercial purpose, we can launch small sats from ISS and make Satellites Servicing, where we put them in proper orbits, refuel, fix and upgrade systems.
Private Space station
International Space Station, ISS
A Spacecraft reaches the deep space level when it goes at Lagrange points, Moon, Asteroids, Mars and beyond. Well, here we have some kinds of Tourist and Explorers who can make exotic experiences in the same way of The Inspiration of Mars Foundation. Example of that is the proposed seat to the Moon by Golden Spike Company for $750M.
In its ultimate destinations in space, happy humans can be productive and in developing new materials and processes to create new markets and improve life, we develop in-space economy. That mean, proceeding mining and In situ Resource Utilization for Propellants, metal and building new materials.
These development provide a new space-based economy for as well as 3D printing and space manufacturing... and more. It will be also possible to establish settlement by moving human civilization to Moon and Mars.
Private Cies target SUBORBITAL AND ORBITAL travels
THE SUBORBITAL TRAVEL WITH XCOR AEROSPACE
Founded in 1999, XCOR Aerospace designs and custom-builds propulsion systems, spacecrafts and their rocket engines. Since 1999, XCOR has developed more than 15 rocket engines and flown 2 rocket-powered aircrafts.
Its Lynx spacecraft is developed in Hangar 61 in Mojave, California and, presently, it has an orbital vehicle in the design phase.
In addition to passenger and payload flights, XCOR Lynx spacecrafts are available to government and commercial customers on a wet-lease basis.
The Lynx departs directly from the runway under its own rocket power and reaches its supersonic speed in 1minute, and is weightless in 5 minutes. Then, the Lynx wastes no time to deliver the spaceflight to its full experience.
Before going up in the Lynx pressurized cabin, XCOR pilots and participants put their full pressure suits. Unique to this spacecraft, each reaction control thrusters has a backup for a total of 12 thrusters and the main engines can be operated independently of one another.
FOUR FLIGHTS IN ONE DAY!
The Lynx spacecraft uses kerosene, a non-toxic liquid fuel, that makes flights simpler and, because the engines are piston pump fed, engineers can maintain the Lynx faster. This makes it possible to have more launch per day.
The company's flight program will begin with an initial test vehicle with the Mark I, followed by several production models for specific markets.
Now in development at XCOR's Hangar 61 in Mojave, California, the Lynx Mark I is the first spacecraft to be used to characterize and test its subsystems, train pilots and crew for Mark II. They tests the life support systems, followed by the re-entry heating.
Once done, Mark II will serve to the suborbital tourism market and, depending of the internal payload space, micro-gravity and biotechnology experiments. This vehicle uses the same propulsion and avionics systems as the first model but has a lower dry weigh and an higher performance.
Lynx Mark II will take spaceflight participants and payloads to the edge of space, and is designed to fly as high as 100 km, depending on the payload configuration.
The third model of XCOR will be the Mark III, an highly modified version of the Lynx Mark II. Withits external dorsal pod of 650kg capability, it can transport payload experiments or an upper-stage capable of launching small satellites in LEO.
THE SUBORBITAL TRAVEL WITH VIRGIN GALACTIC
In 2004, the British entrepreneur Richard Branson founded Virgin Galactic in Mojave, California. His major goal has always been to promote Space tourism and research.
Until now, almost 700 people have paid $250,000 for a seat in the reusable horizontal take off SpaceShipTwo.
With the help of the White Knight Two, the SpaceShipTwo will be able to bring up 6 passengers and 2pilots or about 600 kg of payloads. The landing will be in the Spaceport America in New Mexico.
The ship will go above an altitude of 100 km, in near-vacuum conditions, followed by a straight-down re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere and a gliding return to the airport of origin.
For Virgin Galactic, the Space Travel in the near future:
«We are here because we believe we are at the vanguard of a new space industry that is defining the future of exploration and that we will ultimately make space accessible to more people and for more purposes than ever before.»
Constructed of carbon composites, the WhiteKnightTwo has a twin-fuselage and a 140-foot wingspan, powered by 4 turbofan engines. Between its fuselages, a heavy lifter grips the rocket ship, takes off from a runway of 47,000 feet and flies for a horizontal launch.
Between its fuselages, a heavy lifter grips the rocket ship, takes off from a runway of 47,000 feet and flies for a horizontal launch.
The rocket ship SpaceShipTwo, is a twin-tailed, stubby-winged aircraft the size of a business jet. Its hybrid rocket engine contains enough fuel to provide one-minute burn and, enough to thrust the aircraft at a speed of Mach 3.5 in a vertical climb. After its injection into Space, the powerless ship returns as a glider. It has a two-pilot cockpit and a cabin large enough for 6passengers in recliner seats.
A Spacecraft reaches the suborbital level when it goes at 100 km (62 miles) or higher but does not have the forward velocity to go into orbit (e.g. 7.7km/s at 300 km)
At this orbit, Tourist Industry can be developed where Companies like Virgin Galacric propose trips-tickets for $250K, or a seat at $95K/$100K by XCOR. During the trip, itcan do around 4 minutes of microgravity, proceeding at some life science experiment and upper atmospheric measurements... and more.
Travel from one location on Earth to another through space
About the Video: Here's Elon Musk's Vision for a Affordable Space Travel to Mars
SpaceX CEO Elon Musk unveiled his plan for colonizing Mars Tuesday at the 67th International Astronautical Congress in Guadalajara, Mexico. Credit: Bloomberg