A Spacecraft reaches the orbital level when it goes toLow-Earth Orbit (LEO) between 180 –3000 km –High Earth Orbit (HEO) –Geocentric 35,786 km
At those orbits, the Tourist Industry can offer spending long periods of time in microgravity at ISS or on private space stations. One example is Space Adventures where 7 private citizens can goes at ISS for 8 missions at a cost of $20M  to $40M per trip. At this level, we can do some research and conduct experiments in microgravity and life sciences.
For Commercial purpose, we can launch small sats from ISS and make Satellites Servicing, where we put them in proper orbits, refuel, fix and upgrade systems.
Private Space Station

International Space Station, ISS

A Spacecraft reaches the deep space level when it goes at Lagrange points, Moon, Asteroids, Mars and beyond. Well, here we have some kinds of Tourist and Explorers who can make exotic experiences in the same way of The Inspiration of Mars Foundation. Example of that is the proposed seat to the Moon by Golden Spike Company for $750M.
In its ultimate destinations in space, happy humans can be productive and in developing new materials and processes to create new markets and improve life, we develop in-space economy. That mean, proceeding mining and In situ Resource Utilization for Propellants, metal and building new materials.
These development provide a new space-based economy for as well as 3D printing and space manufacturing... and more. It will be also possible to establish settlement by moving human civilization to Moon and Mars.
Moon's Workers for Settlement

Mars'surface Habitat


We can do it in using techniques of Aeroassit, which includes Aerocapture, Aerobraking, entry and Aerogravity Assist maneuvers.

So, when a spacecraft do many passes through the atmosphere of a planet with only small changes during each pass, that means passing from a larger eccentricity to a smaller, it makes Aerobraking maneuver. During a single pass, the initial and the final states of the spacecraft are bound orbits at the primary. Today example of that it’s the Grand Finale of Cassini on Saturn planet in September 2017. Learn more about that. See below.
Unless many variants exist of this maneuver, if a spacecraft enter into a planet’s atmosphere from a bound or unbound orbit and makes a fully decelerated state, it makes an atmospheric entry.
The spacecraft can entry directly in decreasing monotonically its altitude throughout the entry maneuver. Because it is direct, it can be landing on a solid or liquid surface (like Titan’s lakes), or complete a mission while still in the atmosphere, as giant planet entry probes as well as a Venus balloon.
A second variant used is the “skip entry”, where the spacecraft enters the atmosphere and decelerates partially, exit and then re-enter for a final deceleration. This latter method is often applied to very high-energy entries, allowing more gradual deceleration and increased landing location accuracy.

So, if the location is not important, the direct entry maneuver can be applicate without flight path control. But, if it is important and has relatively small tolerances, a guided entry might be more appropriate. That is why, Aerobraking is more challenging than Aerocapture, but necessary, for critical payload like the Mars Science Lander or “Curiosity.” In that latter case, operational team use a flight path control during the hypersonic phase of the entry.
When a spacecraft, in addition to the gravitational forces, uses the aerodynamic forces generated during a flight through a body’s atmosphere, it maneuvers in Aerogravity assist. That method is useful for a body with a weak gravitational field that cannot provide the hyperbolic bending angle needed for a near-optimal gravity assist maneuver, but with a relative atmosphere, it can generate aerodynamic forces sufficient to achieve it.
Unlike Aerocapture, the approach and departure orbits of an Aerogravity assist maneuver are unbound with respect to the body whose atmosphere is used, so the vehicle’s ultimate destination is usually elsewhere.
Most examples in the literature describe Aerogravity assist as a means to achieve extremely high heliocentric velocities (on the order of 50–100 km/s) or high-energy trajectories to the outer solar system, applications that would require significant advances in thermal protection system technology.
But an Aerogravity assist maneuver can also decrease a vehicle’s orbital energy relative to a third body. For example, a spacecraft could use a relatively gentle Aerogravity assist in Titan’s atmosphere to capture into Saturn orbit, as seen in the upper graphic.


For a particular launch vehicle, there are three categories of potential benefits from using Aerocapture instead of propulsive orbit insertion.
First, when a spacecraft use Aerocapture, it can deliver more payload mass to orbit, mean the destination. Simply, because the mass of hardware needed for the Aerocapture maneuver is less than the propulsion hardware and propellant needed to perform the insertion. This difference is available for increased science payload and spacecraft subsystems to support it.
Second, it decreases the trip time from launch at Earth to the destination. Why? Because we have a higher V∞ of approach from shortening a mission’s trip time, the ΔV for orbit insertion increases.
Finally, we can also say that, given a fixed science payload and trajectory, Aerocapture allow launching on a less costly launch vehicle. That cost price depends strongly upon the destination, especially the destination’s heliocentric distance. Studies by NASA’s Aerocapture Systems Analysis Team (ASAT)indicate that the increase in delivered payload can range from about 15% at Mars, to more than 200% at Titan and Uranus, to more than 800% at Neptune.


A Spacecraft reaches the suborbital level when it goes at 100 km (62 miles) or higher but does not have the forward velocity to go into orbit (e.g. 7.7km/s at 300 km)
At this orbit, Tourist Industry can be developed where Companies like Virgin Galacric propose trips-tickets for $250K, or a seat at $95K/$100K by XCOR. During the trip, itcan do around 4 minutes of microgravity, proceeding at some life science experiment and upper atmospheric measurements... and more. 

Travel from one location on Earth to another through space
How does an astronaut return to Earth from the International Space Station? What does it feel like to re-enter the atmosphere? How does the Soyuz capsule function? Watch and find out. This video is based on an actual lesson delivered to the ESA astronaut class of 2009 (also known as the #Shenanigans09) during their ESA Basic Training. It features interviews with astronauts who have flown on the Soyuz and dramatic footage of actual landings.
Produced by the ESA Human Spaceflight and Operations (HSO) Astronaut Training Division, Cologne, Germany, in collaboration with the HSO Strategic Planning and Outreach Office, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, with special support from Roskosmos. Credit: European Space Agency, ESA



In the Earth orbit from 1973 to 1979, Skylab was the first space station launched and operated by NASA. The module of 77 t has been launched unmanned on a modified Saturn V rocket. To complete the assembly, three manned missions with three-astronaut crew each has been conducted between 1973 and 1974. To make the work well, crew using the Apollo Command/Service Module (CSM) placed atop the smaller Saturn IB. On the last two manned missions, an additional Apollo / Saturn IB stood by ready to rescue the crew in orbit if it was needed.
Skylab included the Apollo Telescope Mount, which was a multi-spectral solar observatory, Multiple Docking Adapter (with two docking ports), Airlock Module with EVA hatches, and the Orbital Workshop, the main habitable volume. Electrical power came from solar arrays, as well as fuel cells in the docked Apollo CSM. The rear of the station included a large waste tank, propellant tanks for maneuvering jets, and a heat radiator.
The station was damaged during launch when the micro-meteoroid shield separated from the workshop and tore away, taking one of two main solar panel arrays with it and jamming the other one so that it could not deploy. This deprived Skylab of most of its electrical power, and also removed protection from intense solar heating, threatening to make it unusable. The first crew was able to save it in the first ever in-space major repair, by deploying a replacement heat shade and freeing the jammed solar panels.
Vintage NASA documentary about Skylab. Interesting comments by the astronauts early in the film about the reasons why humans should explore space. Skylab was America's only space station. It's legacy serves as a reminder of America as a great space power.
Credit: NASA/JSC Skylab. This is the story of the three missions, the nine astronauts, and their 171 days in the manned laboratory. Crisscrossing 70 per cent of the Earth's land area, Skylab's sensors gathered information about many features of the planet. Actor E. G. Marshall is host and moderator.
Astronaut Jack Lousma takes viewers on a tour of the Skylab Space Station in this 45 minute broadcast.
Gemini 8 - We've Got Serious Problems Here (Full Mission 03) The third of four intended videos which will cover the entire flight of Gemini 8.  The mission transcript is available here http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/history/missi...
The crew perform the first docking of two spacecraft in orbit, which is followed, not long afterwards, with the near catastrophic incident. Unknown to the crew, a thruster on Gemini becomes stuck open and the docked spacecraft begin to yaw. Thinking the issue is with the Agenda, the crew separate from it, but the yaw turns into a spin as the thruster continues to spew fuel out the side of the spacecraft. As the crew regains contact with CSQ the drama unfolds.....

In the first video I added captions to the video. I have decided, due to time constraints, not to do this for subsequent videos. I hope that the viewing is not spoiled because of this. I have added in the communication from the crew at the incident point.

Orbiter Space Simulator is used where actual video is not available. The orbital inclinations and orbital burns are simulated. I do not know if these are the way the actual events were. The in between ground station HD video is from ISS.


Salyut 6 was a Soviet orbital space station, the eighth flown as part of the Salyut program. It was launched on 29 September 1977 by a Proton rocket. In comparison with the earlier Soviet space Stations, its included a second docking port, a new main propulsion system and the station's primary scientific instrument, the BST-1M multi-spectral telescope. A second docking port made crew handovers and station resupply by unmanned Progress freighters possible for the first time. The early Salyut stations had no means of resupply or removing accumulated garbage (aside from the limited amount that cosmonauts could carry in their Soyuz spacecraft), nor could the propulsion system be refueled once it exhausted its propellant supply. Consequently, once the consumables launched with the station were used up, its mission had to be concluded and as a result, manned missions had a maximum duration of three months. Progress spacecraft could now bring fresh supplies and propellant and also be used to dispose of waste, which was then destroyed once the spacecraft was de-orbited.
Five crew took place over the station's lifespan, in late 1977-early 1978, late 1978, mid-1979, mid-1980, and early 1981, including cosmonauts from Warsaw Pact countries as part of the Intercosmos program. These crews were responsible for carrying out the primary missions of Salyut 6, including astronomy, Earth-resources observations and the study of the effect of spaceflight on the human body. Following the completion of these missions and the launch of its successor, Salyut 7, Salyut 6 was de-orbited on 29 July 1982, almost five years after its launch.
Salyut 7 was a space station in low Earth orbit from April 1982 to February 1991. It was first manned in May 1982 with two crew via Soyuz T-5, and last visited in June 1986, by Soyuz T-15. Various crew and modules were used over its lifetime, including a total of 12 manned and 15 unmanned launches. Supporting spacecraft included the Soyuz T, Progress, and TKS spacecraft.
It was part of the Soviet Salyut program, and launched on a Proton rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, which become the Soviet Union. Salyut 7 was part of the transition from "monolithic" to "modular" space stations, acting as a test-bed for docking of additional modules and expanded station operations. It was the tenth space station of any kind launched. Salyut 7 was the last Space Station of the Salyut Program, which was replaced by Mir.